Sausage Manufacturing

Objectives:

(1) To discuss the differences among the various styles of sausage.

(2) To show the chemistry involved in binding meat proteins and making meat emulsions.

(3) To demonstrate the equipment, raw materials and processes involved in sausage manufacturing.

Reading material: Principles of Meat Science (5th ed.), Chapter 8, pages 175 to 212.


Sausage — any meat that is chopped, seasoned and formed into a symmetrical shape.

ClassificationExamples
Cooked-smoked emulsion typeFrankfurters
Bologna
Loaves; luncheon meatsOlive loaf
Head cheese
Fresh; fresh smokedFresh pork sausage
Bratwurst
Cooked, gel typeBraunschweiger
Liver sausage
Fermented, dryPepperoni
Salami
Fermented, semi-dryCervelet
Thuringer

Meat emulsion — a dispersion of fat particles in water held by the action of salt-soluble, heat-coagulable proteins (SSHCP)

  • SSHCP —> actin, myosin, actomyosin
  • Salt-soluble — can be extracted in a weak NaCl solution.
  • Heat-coagulable — will coagulate upon heating.

Manufacture of frankfurters

“Batch” concept

  • Grind
  • Chop
  • Stuff
  • Link
  • Cook
  • Peel

“Continuous” concept

  • Grind
  • Pre-salt
  • Mix-blend
  • Emulsify
  • Vacuumize
  • Stuff
  • Link
  • Cook
  • Brine-chill
  • Peel

Constraints in frankfurter manufacture

USDA

  • Maximum fat = 30%
  • Added water = 10%

In the late 1980s, FSIS regulation allowed that the combination of fat and added water cannot exceed 40%. Thus, a frankfurter can have 20% fat and 20% added water, but still cannot exceed 30% fat.

To determine compliance for added water:

  • Added water = Total water – (4 X P)
  • Maximum added water = 40 – fat percent (not to exceed 30%)
  • Maximum added water >= added water

Plant quality control

  • Binding Index = 40 to 60
  • Color Index = 40 to 50

Choosing animal tissues

Fat to lean ratio

e.g., extra lean pork = 95% lean; regular trim = 50%

Moisture to protein ratio

e.g., regular trim pork = 4.1 to 1 M:P; beef tripe = 4.9 to 1 M:P

Binding Index

  • Relative amount of SSHCP in a meat
  • Bull has index of 100; divide amount in bull into other meat to find BI

Color Index

  • Relative amount of myoglobin in a meat
  • Bull has an index of 100; divide amount in bull into other meat to find CI

Additives

  • 3% NaCl
  • 2% Dextrose
  • 2% Corn syrup solids
  • 1% Microground mustard
  • 1/2% Seasonings (NO2, Ascorbate, GDL, Spices)

Cereal-added

10-1/2 to 12% (8-1/2% as above plus 3-1/2 or 2%)

USDA allows:

3-1/2% of:

  • Cereal (wheat, rice, potato) flour
  • Soy flour
  • Soy concentrate
  • Non-fat dry milk

2% of Soy protein isolate

Meat ingredients in frankfurters

Skeletal meats — beef, pork, lamb, mutton, goat. may contain up to 15% of poultry, lamb, mutton, etc., without losing standard of identity.

By-product or variety meats — tongues, lips, tripe, etc. May contain up to 15% without losing standard of identity.

Non-meat ingredients in frankfurters

Cereals, soy proteins, milk proteins

Labeling

  • Traditional generic name (wieners)
  • Species plus generic (beef franks)
  • Meat by-products added (frankfurters with variety meats)
  • Non-meat binders added (wieners with soy added)
  • Meat by-products and non-meat binders (hot dogs with variety meats and non-fat dry milk added)
  • Unspecified products (treats)

Smoking, cooking, thermal processing

Purposes:

  • Coagulates protein matrix
  • Fixes nitrosomyoglobin
  • Adds smoke components
  • Pasteurizes product
  • Kills trichinella spiralis

Frankfurter defects

DefectCause(s)
Fatting out/fat cappingExcess fat, too little SSHCP, overchopping, too much rework
DeformationToo much cereal
CuringToo much connective tissue
Gelling outToo much connective tissue
CrustingToo low relative humidity, excess protein
GreeningExcess nitrite, presence of Lactobacillus viredescens
SlimingYeast or spoilage bacteria on product
Taste, texture, flatusToo much soy protein in product
Barber-poling, specklingDull blades on chopper
Poor colorToo little or too much myoglobin, failure to complete curing cycle
Poor peelabilityFailure to form outside skin surface, excess connective tissue, understuffing, inadequate relative humidity before peeling

Fresh pork sausage

Seasoning (20, 8, 5, 2) per hundred pounds

  • 20 oz salt
  • 8 oz sugar
  • 5 oz sage
  • 2 oz black pepper

Sack sausage, bulk sausage, sausage patties, sausage links

Chilled pork —> trimmings or whole carcasses

Pre-rigor pork sausage

  • Slaughter
  • Bone
  • Grind
  • Mix-blend
  • Grind
  • Continuous stuffer
  • Kartridg-Pak chub packaging machine

Saran barrier —> muscle respires, uses trapped, residual oxygen

Fermented sausage

  • Dry < 35% moisture
  • Semi-dry < 50% moisture
  • Fermented —> lactic acid

Conversion of sugar —> lactic acid (characteristic acid, tangy flavor)

Old method of manufacturing (2 weeks)

  • Grinding
  • Season + cure, mixing
  • Pan-curing (3 days @ 37°F)
  • Stuffing
  • Greening (10 days @ 73°F)
  • Smoking (32 hr @ 100°F)
  • Drying (10-90 days)

Pan-curing = NaNO3 + Micrococcus aurantiacus —> NaNO2

Greening = Sugar + lactic acid bacteria —> lactic acid

New method of manufacturing (2 days):

  • Grinding
  • Season + cure, mixing
  • Add Lactocel®
  • Stuffing
  • Greening (16 hr @ 85°F)
  • Smoking (32 hr @ 100°F)
  • Drying (10-90 days)

Starter culture

  • Micrococcus aurantiacus
  • Lactobacillus plantarum
  • Pediococcus cerevisiae

Micrococcus aurantiacus ————–> converts NO3 —> NO2

Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus cerevisiae—————> converts sugar —> lactic acid


Review of Material — What the student should know:

(1) The different kinds of sausages manufactured.

(2) The purpose of SSHCP.

(3) How sausages are manufactured.


Links to related sites on the Internet

Hormel Foods. Home of hot dogs, Cure 81® hams, and SPAM®.

National Hot Dog and Sausage Council. Fun and interesting facts about hot dogs.

Oscar Mayer Foods. Home of great hot dogs and bologna.

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