ANSC 627 – Carcass Composition and Quality: Resources

Module 1 – Prediction and Instrument Assessment

Statistics

MacNeil, M. D. 1983. Choice of a prediction equation and the use of the selected equation in subsequent experimentation. J. Anim. Sci. 57: 1328-1336. doi:10.2527/jas1983.5751328x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Kempster, A. J., A. Cuthbertson, and G. Harrington. 1982. Prediction. Carcase Evaluation in Livestock Breeding, Production and Marketing. Westview Press, Boulder, CO. p. 47-55.

Nagele, P. 2003. Misuse of standard error of the mean (SEM) when reporting variability of a sample. A critical evaluation of four anaesthesia journals. Brit. J. Anaesth. 90: 514-516. doi:10.1093/bja/aeg087 [British Journal of Anesthesia link]

Carter, R. E. 2013. A Standard Error: Distinguishing standard deviation from standard error. Diabetes 62: e15. doi:10.2337/db13-0692 [Diabetes link]

Altman, D. G., and J. M. Bland. 2005. Standard deviations and standard errors. BMJ 331: 903. doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7521.903 [BMJ link]

Larson, M. G. 2008. Analysis of variance. Circulation 117: 115-121. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.654335 [Circulation link]

Palatability evaluation

American Meat Science Association. 2016. Research guidelines for cookery, sensory evaluation, and instrumental tenderness measurements of meat. American Meat Science Association, Champaign, Illinois. http://meatscience.org/docs/default-source/publications-resources/amsa-sensory-and-tenderness-evaluation-guidelines/research-guide/amsa-research-guidelines-for-cookery-and-evaluation-1-02.pdf?sfvrsn=2. (Accessed 24 January 2017.)

Shackelford, S. D., T. L. Wheeler, and M. Koohmaraie. 1995. Relationship between shear force and trained sensory panel tenderness ratings of 10 major muscles from Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 3333-3340. doi:10.2527/1995.73113333x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Shackelford, S. D., T. L. Wheeler, and M. Koohmaraie. 1999. Evaluation of slice shear force as an objective method of assessing beef longissimus tenderness. J. Anim. Sci. 77: 2693-2699. doi:10.2527/1999.77102693x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Miller, R. K. 1998. Sensory evaluation of pork. National Pork Board, Des Moines, Iowa, http://meatscience.org/docs/default-source/publications-resources/fact-sheets/q-sensoryeval.pdf. (Accessed 24 January 2017).

Wheeler, T. L., S. D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie. 2004. The accuracy and repeatability of untrained laboratory consumer panelists in detecting differences in beef longissimus tenderness. J. Anim. Sci. 82: 557-562. doi:10.2527/2004.822557x [Journal of Animal Science link]

ASTM Standard F2925 11. 2011. Standard Specification for Tenderness Marketing Claims Associated with Meat Cuts Derived from Beef. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. http://www.astm.org/Standards/F2925.htm. (Accessed Mar. 14, 2012).

Instrument grading

Allen, P. 1990. New approaches to measuring body composition in live meat animals. J. D. Wood and A. V. Fisher, editors, Reducing Fat in Meat Animals. Elsevier Applied Science, London and New York. p. 201.

Fisher, A. V. 1990. New approaches to measuring fat in the carcasses of meat animals. J. D. Wood and A. V. Fisher, editors, Reducing Fat in Meat Animals. Elsevier Applied Science, London and New York. p. 255.

Cross, H. R., and K. E. Belk. 1994. Objective measurements of carcass and meat quality. Meat Sci. 36: 191-202. doi:10.1016/0309-1740(94)90041-8 [Meat Science link]

Cross, H. R., and A. D. Whittaker. 1992. The role of instrument grading in a beef value-based marketing system. J. Anim. Sci. 70: 984-989. doi:10.2527/1992.703984x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Shackelford, S. D., T. L. Wheeler, and M. Koohmaraie. 2004. Development of optimal protocol for visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic evaluation of meat quality. Meat Sci. 68: 371-381. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.01.013 [Meat Science link]

Shackelford, S. D., T. L. Wheeler, D. A. King, and M. Koohmaraie. 2012. Field testing of a system for online classification of beef carcasses for longissimus tenderness using visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. J. Anim. Sci. 90: 978-988. doi:10.2527/jas.2011-4167 [Journal of Animal Science link]

Emerson, M. R., D. R. Woerner, K. E. Belk, and J. D. Tatum. 2013. Effectiveness of USDA instrument-based marbling measurements for categorizing beef carcasses according to differences in longissimus muscle sensory attributes. J. Anim. Sci. 91: 1024-1034. doi:10.2527/jas.2012-5514 [Journal of Animal Science link]

Module 2 — Pork carcass quality and composition

Pork carcass quality

Davis, G. W., G. C. Smith, Z. L. Carpenter, and H. R. Cross. 1975. Relationships of quality indicators to palatability attributes of pork loins. J. Anim. Sci. 41: 1305-1313. doi:10.2527/jas1975.4151305x [Journal of Animal Science]

Davis, G. W., G. C. Smith, Z. L. Carpenter, and R. J. Freund. 1978. Segmentation of fresh pork loins into quality groups. J. Anim. Sci. 46: 1618-1625. doi:10.2527/jas1978.4661618x [Journal of Animal Science]

Cassens, R. G. 2000. Historical perspectives and current aspects of pork meat quality in the USA. Food Chem. 69: 357-363. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00048-0 [Food Chemistry link]

Rosenvold, K., and H. J. Andersen. 2003. Factors of significance for pork quality–a review. Meat Sci. 64: 219-237. doi:10.1016/S0309-1740(02)00186-9 [Meat Science link]

Moeller, S. J., R. K. Miller, K. K. Edwards, H. N. Zerby, K. E. Logan, T. L. Aldredge, C. A. Stahl, M. Boggess, and J. M. Box-Steffensmeier. 2010. Consumer perceptions of pork eating quality as affected by pork quality attributes and end-point cooked temperature. Meat Sci. 84: 14-22. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.06.023 [Meat Science link]

Person, R. C., D. R. McKenna, D. B. Griffin, F. K. McKeith, J. A. Scanga, K. E. Belk, G. C. Smith, and J. W. Savell. 2005. Benchmarking value in the pork supply chain: Processing characteristics and consumer evaluations of pork bellies of different thicknesses when manufactured into bacon. Meat Sci. 70: 121-131. 10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.12.012 [Meat Science link]

Person, R. C., D. R. McKenna, J. W. Ellebracht, D. B. Griffin, F. K. McKeith, J. A. Scanga, K. E. Belk, G. C. Smith, and J. W. Savell. 2005. Benchmarking value in the pork supply chain: Processing and consumer characteristics of hams manufactured from different quality raw materials. Meat Sci. 70: 91-97. 10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.01.001 [Meat Science link]

Wright, L. I., J. A. Scanga, K. E. Belk, T. E. Engle, J. D. Tatum, R. C. Person, D. R. McKenna, D. B. Griffin, F. K. McKeith, J. W. Savell, and G. C. Smith. 2005. Benchmarking value in the pork supply chain: Characterization of US pork in the retail marketplace. Meat Sci. 71: 451-463. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.04.024 [Meat Science link]

Lonergan, S. M., K. J. Stalder, E. Huff-Lonergan, T. J. Knight, R. N. Goodwin, K. J. Prusa, and D. C. Beitz. 2007. Influence of lipid content on pork sensory quality within pH classification. J. Anim. Sci. 85: 1074-1079. doi:10.2527/jas.2006-413 [Journal of Animal Science link]

Hamilton, D. N., M. Ellis, K. D. Miller, F. K. McKeith, and D. F. Parrett. 2000. The effect of the Halothane and Rendement Napole genes on carcass and meat quality characteristics of pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 78: 2862-2867. doi:10.2527/2000.78112862x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Cannon, J. E., J. B. Morgan, F. K. McKeith, G. C. Smith, S. Sonka, J. Heavner, and D. L. Meeker. 1996. Pork chain quality audit survey:  Quantification of pork quality characteristics. J. Muscle Foods 7: 29-44. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4573.1996.tb00585.x [Journal of Muscle Foods link]

Pork carcass composition

Cross, H. R., G. C. Smith, Z. L. Carpenter, and A. W. Kotula. 1975. Relationship of carcass scores and measurements to five endpoints for lean cut yields in barrow and gilt carcasses. J. Anim. Sci. 41: 1318-1326. doi:10.2527/jas1975.4151318x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Edwards, R. L., G. C. Smith, H. R. Cross, and Z. L. Carpenter. 1981. Estimating lean in pork carcasses differing in backfat thickness. J. Anim. Sci. 52: 703-709. doi:10.2527/jas1981.524703x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Edwards, R. L., G. C. Smith, H. R. Cross, and Z. L. Carpenter. 1980. Muscle to bone ratios in pork carcasses. J. Anim. Sci. 51: 1321-1329. doi:10.2527/jas1981.5161321x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Swensen, K., M. Ellis, M. S. Brewer, J. Novakofski, and F. K. McKeith. 1998. Pork carcass composition: I. Interrelationships of compositional end points. J. Anim. Sci. 76: 2399-2404. doi:10.2527/1998.7692399x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Swensen, K., M. Ellis, M. S. Brewer, J. Novakofski, and F. K. McKeith. 1998. Pork carcass composition: II. Use of indicator cuts for predicting carcass composition. J. Anim. Sci. 76: 2405-2414. doi:10.2527/1998.7692405x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Pork carcass grading

USDA. 1985. United States standards for grades of pork carcasses. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, Washington, DC. https://www.ams.usda.gov/sites/default/files/media/Pork_Standard%5B1%5D.pdf. (Accessed 21 February 2017).

Pork composition and quality as influenced by sex-class and breed

Brooks, R. I., and A. M. Pearson. 1986. Steroid hormone pathways in the pig, with special emphasis on boar odor: A review. J. Anim. Sci. 62: 632-645. doi:10.2527/jas1986.623632x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Bonneau, M., A. J. Kempster, R. Claus, C. Claudi-Magnussen, A. Diestre, E. Tornberg, P. Walstra, P. Chevillon, U. Weiler, and G. L. Cook. 2000. An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: I. Presentation of the programme and measurement of boar taint compounds with different analytical procedures. Meat Sci. 54: 251-259. doi:10.1016/S0309-1740(99)00102-3 [Meat Science link]

Dijksterhuis, G. B., B. Engel, P. Walstra, M. Font i Furnols, H. Agerhem, K. Fischer, M. A. Oliver, C. Claudi-Magnussen, F. Siret, M. P. Béague, D. B. Homer, and M. Bonneau. 2000. An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: II. Sensory evaluation by trained panels in seven European countries. Meat Sci. 54: 261-269. doi:10.1016/s0309-1740(99)00103-5 [Meat Science link]

Matthews, K. R., D. B. Homer, P. Punter, M. P. Béague, M. Gispert, A. J. Kempster, H. Agerhem, C. Claudi-Magnussen, K. Fischer, F. Siret, H. Leask, M. Font i Furnols, and M. Bonneau. 2000. An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: III. Consumer survey in seven European countries. Meat Sci. 54: 271-283. doi:10.1016/s0309-1740(99)00104-7 [Meat Science link]

Bonneau, M., P. Walstra, C. Claudi-Magnussen, A. J. Kempster, E. Tornberg, K. Fischer, A. Diestre, F. Siret, P. Chevillon, R. Claus, G. Dijksterhuis, P. Punter, K. R. Matthews, H. Agerhem, M. P. Béague, M. A. Oliver, M. Gispert, U. Weiler, G. von Seth, H. Leask, M. Font i Furnols, D. B. Homer, and G. L. Cook. 2000. An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: IV. Simulation studies on consumer dissatisfaction with entire male pork and the effect of sorting carcasses on the slaughter line, main conclusions and recommendations. Meat Sci. 54: 285-295. doi:10.1016/s0309-1740(99)00105-9 [Meat Science link]

Boler, D. D., L. W. Kutzler, D. M. Meeuwse, V. L. King, D. R. Campion, F. K. McKeith, and J. Killefer. 2011. Effects of increasing lysine on carcass composition and cutting yields of immunologically castrated male pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89: 2189-2199. doi:10.2527/jas.2010-3640 [Journal of Animal Science link]

Boler, D. D., D. L. Clark, A. A. Baer, D. M. Meeuwse, V. L. King, F. K. McKeith, and J. Killefer. 2011. Effects of increasing lysine on further processed product characteristics from immunologically castrated male pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89: 2200-2209. doi:10.2527/jas.2010-3641 [Journal of Animal Science link]

Pork composition and quality as influence by growth promotants

Beermann, D. H. 2002. Beta-Adrenergic receptor agonist modulation of skeletal muscle growth. J. Anim. Sci. 80(E-Suppl_1): E18-E23. doi:10.2527/animalsci2002.0021881200800ES10004x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Anderson, D. B., D. E. Moody, and D. L. Hancock. 2005. Beta Adrenergic Agonists. W. G. Pond and A. W. Bell, editors, Encyclopedia of Animal Science. Taylor & Francis, London. p. 104.

Carr, S. N., D. N. Hamilton, K. D. Miller, A. L. Schroeder, D. Fernández-Dueñas, J. Killefer, M. Ellis, and F. K. McKeith. 2009. The effect of ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean®) on lean carcass yields and pork quality characteristics of heavy pigs fed normal and amino acid fortified diets. Meat Sci. 81: 533-539. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.10.007 [Meat Science link]

Kutzler, L. W., S. F. Holmer, D. D. Boler, S. N. Carr, M. J. Ritter, C. W. Parks, F. K. McKeith, and J. Killefer. 2011. Comparison of varying doses and durations of ractopamine hydrochloride on late-finishing pig carcass characteristics and meat quality. J. Anim. Sci. 89: 2176-2188. doi:10.2527/jas.2010-3601 [Journal of Animal Science link]

Apple, J. K., C. V. Maxwell, B. R. Kutz, L. K. Rakes, J. T. Sawyer, Z. B. Johnson, T. A. Armstrong, S. N. Carr, and P. D. Matzat. 2008. Interactive effect of ractopamine and dietary fat source on pork quality characteristics of fresh pork chops during simulated retail display. J. Anim. Sci. 86: 2711-2722. doi:10.2527/jas.2007-0327 [Journal of Animal Science link]

Gerlemann, G. D., G. L. Allee, P. J. Rincker, M. J. Ritter, D. D. Boler, and S. N. Carr. 2014. Impact of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth, efficiency, and carcass traits of finishing pigs in a three phase marketing strategy. J. Anim. Sci. 92: 1200-1207. doi:10.2527/jas.2013-6548 [Journal of Animal Science link]

Module 3 — Beef

Beef carcass quality

–Beef Quality Studies

Smith, G. C., H. R. Cross, Z. L. Carpenter, C. E. Murphey, J. W. Savell, H. C. Abraham, and G. W. Davis. 1982. Relationship of USDA maturity scores to palatability of cooked beef. J. Food Sci. 47: 1100-1107 & 1118. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1982.tb07627.x [Journal of Food Science link]

Smith, G. C., Z. L. Carpenter, H. R. Cross, C. E. Murphey, H. C. Abraham, J. W. Savell, G. W. Davis, B. W. Berry, and F. C. Parrish, Jr. 1985. Relationship of USDA marbling scores to palatability of cooked beef. J. Food Qual. 7: 289-308. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4557.1985.tb01061.x [Journal of Food Quality link]

Smith, G. C., J. W. Savell, H. R. Cross, Z. L. Carpenter, C. E. Murphey, G. W. Davis, H. C. Abraham, F. C. Parrish, Jr., and B. W. Berry. 1987. Relationship of USDA quality grades to palatability of cooked beef. J. Food Qual. 10: 269-286. 10.1111/j.1745-4557.1987.tb00819.x [Journal of Food Quality link]

–National Consumer Retail Beef Study

Savell, J. W., R. E. Branson, H. R. Cross, D. M. Stiffler, J. W. Wise, D. B. Griffin, and G. C. Smith. 1987. National Consumer Retail Beef Study: Palatability evaluations of beef loin steaks that differed in marbling. J. Food Sci. 52: 517-519, 532. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1987.tb06664.x [Journal of Food Science link]

Savell, J. W., H. R. Cross, J. J. Francis, J. W. Wise, D. S. Hale, D. L. Wilkes, and G. C. Smith. 1989. National Consumer Retail Beef Study: Interaction of trim level, price and grade on consumer acceptance of beef steaks and roasts. J. Food Qual. 12: 251-274. 10.1111/j.1745-4557.1989.tb00328.x [Journal of Food Quality link]

–Beef Customer Satisfaction Studies

Neely, T. R., C. L. Lorenzen, R. K. Miller, J. D. Tatum, J. W. Wise, J. F. Taylor, M. J. Buyck, J. O. Reagan, and J. W. Savell. 1998. Beef Customer Satisfaction: Role of cut, USDA quality grade, and city on in-home consumer ratings. J. Anim. Sci. 76: 1027-1033. doi:10.2527/1998.7641027x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Lorenzen, C. L., T. R. Neely, R. K. Miller, J. D. Tatum, J. W. Wise, J. F. Taylor, M. J. Buyck, J. O. Reagan, and J. W. Savell. 1999. Beef Customer Satisfaction: Cooking method and degree of doneness effects on the top loin steak. J. Anim. Sci. 77: 637-644. doi:10.2527/1999.773637x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Neely, T. R., C. L. Lorenzen, R. K. Miller, J. D. Tatum, J. W. Wise, J. F. Taylor, M. J. Buyck, J. O. Reagan, and J. W. Savell. 1999. Beef Customer Satisfaction: Cooking method and degree of doneness effects on the top round steak. J. Anim. Sci. 77: 653-660. doi:10.2527/1999.773653x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Savell, J. W., C. L. Lorenzen, T. R. Neely, R. K. Miller, J. D. Tatum, J. W. Wise, J. F. Taylor, M. J. Buyck, and J. O. Reagan. 1999. Beef Customer Satisfaction: Cooking method and degree of doneness effects on the top sirloin steak. J. Anim. Sci. 77: 645-652. doi:10.2527/1999.773645x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Lorenzen, C. L., R. K. Miller, J. F. Taylor, T. R. Neely, J. D. Tatum, J. W. Wise, M. J. Buyck, J. O. Reagan, and J. W. Savell. 2003. Beef Customer Satisfaction: Trained sensory panel ratings and Warner-Bratzler shear force values. J. Anim. Sci. 81: 143-149. doi:10.2527/2003.811143x [Journal of Animal Science link]

USDA beef quality grade development

Savell, J. W. 2015. ANSC 627: Recent changes in USDA beef grading. http://agrilife.org/meat/files/2015/04/USDA-beef-quality-grade-changes.pdf (Accessed 9 March 2017).

Harris, J. J., H. R. Cross, and J. W. Savell. 1996. History of meat grading in the United States. https://meat.tamu.edu/meat-grading-history/. (Accessed April 12, 2015).

USDA. 2016. United States standards for grades of carcass beef. Agricultural Marketing Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. https://www.ams.usda.gov/sites/default/files/media/Carcass%20Beef%20Standard.pdf (Accessed 10 October 2016).

Beef carcass composition

Murphey, C. E., D. K. Hallett, W. E. Tyler, and J. C. Pierce. 1960. Estimating yields of retail cuts from beef carcasses. Presented at the 62nd Meet. of the Amer. Soc. Anim. Prod., Chicago. http://agrilife.org/meat/files/2012/11/murphey.pdf (Accessed 24 March 2017).

Abraham, H. C., C. E. Murphey, H. R. Cross, G. C. Smith, and W. J. Franks, Jr. 1980. Factors affecting beef carcass cutability:  An evaluation of the USDA yield grades for beef. J. Anim. Sci. 50: 841-851. doi:10.2527/jas1980.505841x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Griffin, D. B., J. W. Savell, J. B. Morgan, R. P. Garrett, and H. R. Cross. 1992. Estimates of subprimal yields from beef carcasses as affected by USDA grades, subcutaneous fat trim level, and carcass sex class and type. J. Anim. Sci. 70: 2411-2430. doi:10.2527/1992.7082411x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Shackelford, S. D., L. V. Cundiff, K. E. Gregory, and M. Koohmaraie. 1995. Predicting beef carcass cutability. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 406-413. doi:10.2527/1995.732406x [Journal of Animal Science link]

USDA beef yield grade development

 

Beef composition and quality as influenced by sex-class and breed

Stiffler, D. M., C. L. Griffin, C. E. Murphey, G. C. Smith, and J. W. Savell. 1985. Characterization of cutability and palatability attributes among different slaughter groups of beef cattle. Meat Sci. 13: 167-183. doi:10.1016/0309-1740(85)90056-7 [Meat Science link]

Charles, D. D., and E. R. Johnson. 1976. Breed differences in amount and distribution of bovine dissectible fat. J. Anim. Sci. 42: 332-341. doi:10.2527/jas1976.422332x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Huffman, R. D., S. E. Williams, D. D. Hargrove, D. D. Johnson, and T. T. Marshall. 1990. Effects of percentage Brahman and Angus breeding, age-season of feeding and slaughter end point on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 68: 2243-2252. doi:10.2527/1990.6882243x [Journal of Animal Science]

Sherbeck, J. A., J. D. Tatum, T. G. Field, J. B. Morgan, and G. C. Smith. 1996. Effect of phenotypic expression of Brahman breeding on marbling and tenderness traits. J. Anim. Sci. 74: 304-309. doi:10.2527/1996.742304x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Pringle, T. D., S. E. Williams, B. S. Lamb, D. D. Johnson, and R. L. West. 1997. Carcass characteristics, the calpain proteinase system, and aged tenderness of Angus and Brahman crossbred steers. J. Anim. Sci. 75: 2955-2961. doi:10.2527/1997.75112955x [Journal of Animal Science]

Wheeler, T. L., L. V. Cundiff, R. M. Koch, and J. D. Crouse. 1996. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle IV): carcass traits and longissimus palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 74: 1023-1035. doi:10.2527/1996.7451023x [Journal of Animal Science]

Wheeler, T. L., L. V. Cundiff, S. D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie. 2001. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle V): carcass traits and longissimus palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 79: 1209-1222. doi:10.2527/2001.7951209x [Journal of Animal Science]

Wheeler, T. L., L. V. Cundiff, S. D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie. 2004. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle VI): Carcass, yield, and longissimus palatability traits. J. Anim. Sci. 82: 1177-1189. doi:10.2527/2004.8241177x [Journal of Animal Science]

Wheeler, T. L., L. V. Cundiff, S. D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie. 2005. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle VII): Carcass, yield, and longissimus palatability traits. J. Anim. Sci. 83: 196-207. doi:10.2527/2005.831196x [Journal of Animal Science]

Wheeler, T. L., L. V. Cundiff, S. D. Shackelford, and M. Koohmaraie. 2010. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle VIII): Carcass, yield, and longissimus palatability traits. J. Anim. Sci. 88: 3070-3083. doi:10.2527/jas.2009-2497 [Journal of Animal Science]

Beef composition and quality as influenced by growth promotants

–Steroidal

Patterson, R. L. S., and L. J. Salter. 1985. Anabolic agents and meat quality: A review. Meat Sci. 14: 191-220. doi:10.1016/0309-1740(85)90008-7 [Meat Science link]

Foutz, C. P., H. G. Dolezal, T. L. Gardner, D. R. Gill, J. L. Hensley, and J. B. Morgan. 1997. Anabolic implant effects on steer performance, carcass traits, subprimal yields, and longissimus muscle properties. J. Anim. Sci. 75: 1256-1265. doi:10.2527/1997.7551256x [Journal of Animal Science]

Roeber, D. L., R. C. Cannell, K. E. Belk, R. K. Miller, J. D. Tatum, and G. C. Smith. 2000. Implant strategies during feeding: impact on carcass grades and consumer acceptability. J. Anim. Sci. 78: 1867-1874. doi:10.2527/2000.7871867x [Journal of Animal Science]

Reinhardt, C. D., and J. J. Wagner. 2014. High-dose anabolic implants are not all the same for growth and carcass traits of feedlot steers: A meta-analysis. J. Anim. Sci. 92: 4711-4718. doi: 10.2527/jas.2014-7572 [Journal of Animal Science]

Duckett, S. K., and S. L. Pratt. 2014. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium — Anabolic implants and meat quality. J. Anim. Sci. 92: 3-9. [Journal of Animal Science]

–Beta-agonists

Delmore, R. J., J. M. Hodgen, and B. J. Johnson. 2010. Perspectives on the application of zilpaterol hydrochloride in the United States beef industry. J. Anim. Sci. 88: 2825-2828. doi:10.2527/jas.2009-2473 [Journal of Animal Science link]

Howard, S. T., D. R. Woerner, D. J. Vote, J. A. Scanga, R. J. Acheson, P. L. Chapman, T. C. Bryant, J. D. Tatum, and K. E. Belk. 2014. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on carcass cutability of calf-fed Holstein steers. J. Anim. Sci. 92: 369-375. doi:10.2527/jas.2013-7104 [Journal of Animal Science]

Howard, S. T., D. R. Woerner, D. J. Vote, J. A. Scanga, P. L. Chapman, T. C. Bryant, R. J. Acheson, J. D. Tatum, and K. E. Belk. 2014. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on longissimus muscle shear force and sensory attributes of calf-fed Holstein steers. J. Anim. Sci. 92: 376-383. doi:10.2527/jas.2013-7041 [Journal of Animal Science link]

Arp, T. S., S. T. Howard, D. R. Woerner, J. A. Scanga, D. R. McKenna, W. H. Kolath, P. L. Chapman, J. D. Tatum, and K. E. Belk. 2014. Effects of dietary ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on performance, carcass traits, and carcass cutability in beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 92: 836-843. [Journal of Animal Science link]

Arp, T. S., S. T. Howard, D. R. Woerner, J. A. Scanga, D. R. McKenna, W. H. Kolath, P. L. Chapman, J. D. Tatum, and K. E. Belk. 2013. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on longissimus muscle shear force and sensory attributes of beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 91: 5989-5997. doi:10.2527/jas.2013-7042 [Journal of Animal Science link]

Scramlin, S. M., W. J. Platter, R. A. Gomez, W. T. Choat, F. K. McKeith, and J. Killefer. 2010. Comparative effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass traits, and longissimus tenderness of finishing steers. J. Anim. Sci. 88: 1823-1829. doi:10.2527/jas.2009-2405 [Journal of Animal Science link]

National Beef Quality Audit

Lorenzen, C. L., D. S. Hale, D. B. Griffin, J. W. Savell, K. E. Belk, T. L. Frederick, M. F. Miller, T. H. Montgomery, and G. C. Smith. 1993. National Beef Quality Audit: Survey of producer-related defects and carcass quality and quantity attributes. J. Anim. Sci. 71: 1495-1502. doi:10.2527/1993.7161495x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Boleman, S. L., S. J. Boleman, W. W. Morgan, D. S. Hale, D. B. Griffin, J. W. Savell, R. P. Ames, M. T. Smith, J. D. Tatum, T. G. Field, G. C. Smith, B. A. Gardner, J. B. Morgan, S. L. Northcutt, H. G. Dolezal, D. R. Gill, and F. K. Ray. 1998. National Beef Quality Audit-1995: Survey of producer-related defects and carcass quality and quantity attributes. J. Anim. Sci. 76: 96-103. doi:10.2527/1998.76196x [Journal of Animal Science link]

McKenna, D. R., D. L. Roeber, P. K. Bates, T. B. Schmidt, D. S. Hale, D. B. Griffin, J. W. Savell, J. C. Brooks, J. B. Morgan, T. H. Montgomery, K. E. Belk, and G. C. Smith. 2002. National Beef Quality Audit-2000: Survey of targeted cattle and carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, and value of fed steers and heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 80: 1212-1222. doi:10.2527/2002.8051212x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Garcia, L. G., K. L. Nicholson, T. W. Hoffman, T. E. Lawrence, D. S. Hale, D. B. Griffin, J. W. Savell, D. L. VanOverbeke, J. B. Morgan, K. E. Belk, T. G. Field, J. A. Scanga, J. D. Tatum, and G. C. Smith. 2008. National Beef Quality Audit-2005: Survey of targeted cattle and carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, and value of fed steers and heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 86: 3533-3543. doi:10.2527/jas.2007-0782 [Journal of Animal Science link]

Moore, M. C., G. D. Gray, D. S. Hale, C. R. Kerth, D. B. Griffin, J. W. Savell, C. R. Raines, K. E. Belk, D. R. Woerner, J. D. Tatum, J. L. Igo, D. L. VanOverbeke, G. G. Mafi, T. E. Lawrence, R. J. Delmore, Jr., L. M. Christensen, S. D. Shackelford, D. A. King, T. L. Wheeler, L. R. Meadows, and M. E. O’Connor. 2012. National Beef Quality Audit–2011: In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 90: 5143-5151. doi:10.2527/jas.2012-5550 [Journal of Animal Science link]

Gray, G. D., M. C. Moore, D. S. Hale, C. R. Kerth, D. B. Griffin, J. W. Savell, C. R. Raines, T. E. Lawrence, K. E. Belk, D. R. Woerner, J. D. Tatum, D. L. VanOverbeke, G. G. Mafi, R. J. Delmore, Jr., S. D. Shackelford, D. A. King, T. L. Wheeler, L. R. Meadows, and M. E. O’Connor. 2012. National Beef Quality Audit – 2011: Survey of instrument grading assessments of beef carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 90: 5152-5158. doi:10.2527/jas.2012-5551 [Journal of Animal Science link]

Module 4 — Lamb and World Grading/Classification Systems

USDA lamb quality grade development

Smith, G. C., Z. L. Carpenter, G. T. King, and K. E. Hoke. 1970. Lamb carcass quality. 1. Palatability of leg roasts. J. Anim. Sci. 30: 496-502. doi:10.2527/jas1970.304496x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Smith, G. C., Z. L. Carpenter, G. T. King, and K. E. Hoke. 1970. Lamb carcass quality. II. Palatability of rib, loin and sirloin chops. J. Anim. Sci. 31: 310-317. doi:10.2527/jas1970.312310x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Schönfeldt, H. C., R. T. Naudé, W. Bok, S. M. van Heerden, R. Smit, and E. Boshoff. 1993. Flavour- and tenderness-related quality characteristics of goat and sheep meat. Meat Sci. 34: 363-379. doi:10.1016/0309-1740(93)90084-U [Meat Science link]

USDA lamb yield grade development

Smith, G. C., Z. L. Carpenter, and G. T. King. 1969. Ovine carcass cutability. J. Anim. Sci. 29: 272-282. doi:10.2527/jas1969.292272x [Journal of Animal Science]

USDA lamb grading standards

USDA. 1992. United States standards for grades of lamb, yearling mutton, and mutton carcasses. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, Washington, DC. https://www.ams.usda.gov/sites/default/files/media/Lamb%2C_Yearling_Mutton_and_Mutton_Standard%5B1%5D.pdf (Accessed 6 April 2017.)

Lamb composition and quality as influenced by sex-class, breed, and growth promotants

Snowder, G. D., H. A. Glimp, and R. A. Field. 1994. Carcass characteristics and optimal slaughter weights in four breeds of sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 72: 932-937. doi:10.2527/1994.724932x [Journal of Animal Science]

López-Carlos, M. A., R. G. Ramírez, J. I. Aguilera-Soto, C. F. Aréchiga, F. Méndez-Llorente, H. Rodríguez, and J. M. Silva. 2010. Effect of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride on growth, diet digestibility, intake and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs. Livest. Sci. 131: 23-30. doi:10.1016/j.livsci.2010.02.018 [Livestock Science link]

Tatum, J. D., M. S. DeWalt, S. B. LeValley, J. W. Savell, and F. L. Williams. 1998. Relationship of feeder lamb frame size to feedlot gain and carcass yield and quality grades. J. Anim. Sci. 76: 435-440. doi:10.2527/1998.762435x [Journal of Animal Science link]

Wong, E., C. B. Johnson, and L. N. Nixon. 1975. The contribution of 4-methyloctanoic (hircinoic) acid to mutton and goat meat flavour. New Zeal. J. Agr. Res. 18: 261-266. doi:10.1080/00288233.1975.10423642 [New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research]

Carcass grading/classification systems of the world — EU and Canada

Rural Payments Agency. 2011. Beef Carcase Classification Scheme: Guidance on dressing specifications and carcase classification. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/554935/bccs2_nov_2011_v_4.0.pdf (Accessed 17 April 2017.)

Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development. Community scale for the classification of carcases of adult bovine animals. European Commission. https://www.daera-ni.gov.uk/sites/default/files/publications/dard/eu-bovine-carcase-classification-leaflet.pdf (Accessed 17 April 2017.)

Allen, M. 2014. Overview of the beef carcass classifications systems used in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Research and Information Service Briefing Note, Northern Ireland Assembly. http://www.niassembly.gov.uk/globalassets/documents/raise/publications/2014/dard/13814.pdf (Accessed 17 April 2017.)

European Commission. 2006. Council Regulation (EC) No 1183/2006 of 24 July 2006 concerning the Community scale for the classification of carcasses of adult bovine animals (codified version). Official Journal of the European Union. https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/22157409-29b7-4a90-a7e9-ab6d72dfdf85/language-en (Accessed 17 April 2017.)

Beef Cattle Research Council. 2016. Carcass Grading. Beef Cattle Research Council, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. http://www.beefresearch.ca/research-topic.cfm/carcass-grading-41#quality (Accessed 17 April 2017.)

Canadian Beef Grading Agency. Grades. http://beefgradingagency.ca/grades.html (Accessed 28 March 2017.)

Canadian Beef Grading Agency. Yield. http://beefgradingagency.ca/yield.html (Accessed 20 April 2017.)

Carcass grading/classification systems of the world — Japan

Japan Meat Grading Association. 2000. Beef Carcass Grading Standard. Japan Meat Grading Association, Tokyo, Japan. http://wagyu.org/uploads/page/JMGA%20Meat%20Grading%20Brochure_english.pdf (Accessed 17 April 2017).

Carcass grading/classification systems of the world — Australia

Meat Standards Australia. 2018. The effect of growth promotants on beef eating quality. Meat & Livestock Australia, North Sydney, NSW. https://www.mla.com.au/globalassets/mla-corporate/marketing-beef-and-lamb/documents/meat-standards-australia/msa05-beef-tt_the-effect-of-tropical-breeds-on-beef-eating-quality-lr.pdf (Accessed April 22, 2019.)

Meat Standards Australia. 2018. The effect of marbling on beef eating quality. Meat & Livestock Australia, North Sydney, NSW. https://www.mla.com.au/globalassets/mla-corporate/marketing-beef-and-lamb/documents/meat-standards-australia/msa07-beef-tt_the-effect-of-marbling-on-beef-eating-quality-lr.pdf (Accessed April 22, 2019.)

Meat Standards Australia. 2018. The effect of tropical breeds on beef eating quality. Meat & Livestock Australia, North Sydney, NSW. https://www.mla.com.au/globalassets/mla-corporate/marketing-beef-and-lamb/documents/meat-standards-australia/msa05-beef-tt_the-effect-of-tropical-breeds-on-beef-eating-quality-lr.pdf (Accessed April 22, 2019.)

Polkinghorne, R., J. M. Thompson, R. Watson, A. Gee, and M. Porter. 2008. Evolution of the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) beef grading system. Aust. J. Exp. Agr. 48: 1351-1359. doi:10.1071/EA07177 [Animal Production Science]

Smith, G. C., J. D. Tatum, and K. E. Belk. 2008. International perspective:  Characterisation of United States Department of Agriculture and Meat Standards Australia systems for assessing beef quality. Aust. J. Exp. Agr. 48: 1465-1480. doi:10.1071/EA08198 [Animal Production Science]

Watson, R., A. Gee, R. Polkinghorne, and M. Porter. 2008. Consumer assessment of eating quality – development of protocols for Meat Standards Australia (MSA) testing. Aust. J. Exp. Agr. 48: 1360-1367. doi:10.1071/EA07176 [Animal Production Science]

 

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