Sausage Manufacturing

Objectives:

(1) To discuss the differences among the various styles of sausage.

(2) To show the chemistry involved in binding meat proteins and making meat emulsions.

(3) To demonstrate the equipment, raw materials and processes involved in sausage manufacturing.

Reading material: Principles of Meat Science (3rd ed.), Chapter 7, pages 133 to 171.


Sausage — any meat that is chopped, seasoned and formed into a symmetrical shape.

 

Sausage Consumption

Pounds per Person per Year

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce; Business Trend Analysis

Year Franks Fresh Dry Other Smoked

or Cooked

Jellied

Goods


1972

5.9

3.7

1.5

9.4

1.1

1977

6.8

4.2

1.7

9.3

0.4

1982

5.9

4.3

1.9

7.7

0.4

1987

6.2

4.2

2.5

7.9

0.4

1992E

6.4

4.4

3.3

7.9

0.2
 

Sausage Classification

Classification Examples
Cooked-smoked emulsion type Frankfurter Bologna
Loaves; luncheon meats Olive loaf Head cheese
Fresh; fresh smoked Fresh pork sausage Bratwurst
Cooked; gel type Braunschweiger Liver sausage
Fermented, Dry Pepperoni Salami
Fermented, Semi-dry Cervelet Thuringer

 

Meat emulsion — a dispersion of fat particles in water held by the action of salt-soluble, heat-coagulable proteins (SSHCP)

SSHCP —> actin, myosin, actomyosin

Salt-soluble — can be extracted in a weak NaCl solution.

Heat-coagulable – will coagulate upon heating.

Manufacture of frankfurters

“Batch” concept “Continuous” concept
Grind Grind
Chop Pre-salt
Stuff Mix-blend
Link Emulsify
Cook Vacuumize
Peel Stuff
Link
Cook
Brine-chill
Peel

 

Constraints in frankfurter manufacture

USDA

Maximum fat = 30%

Added water = 10%

New law (1988) states that the combination of fat and water cannot exceed 40%. Thus, can have a frankfurter with 20% fat and 20% added water, but, maximum fat still cannot exceed 30%.

To determine compliance for added water:

Added water = Total water – (4 X P)

Maximum added water = 40 – fat percent (not to exceed 30%)

Maximum added water >= added water

Plant quality control

Binding Index = 40 to 60

Color Index = 40 to 50

Choosing animal tissues

Fat to lean ratio

e.g., extra lean pork = 95% lean; regular trim = 50%

Moisture to protein ratio

e.g., regular trim pork = 4.1 to 1 M:P; beef tripe = 4.9 to 1 M:P

Binding Index

Relative amount of SSHCP in a meat

Bull has index of 100; divide amount in bull into other meat to find BI

Color Index

Relative amount of myoglobin in a meat

Bull has an index of 100; divide amount in bull into other meat to find CI

Additives

3% NaCl

2% Dextrose

2% Corn syrup solids

1% Microground mustard

1/2% Seasonings (NO2, Ascorbate, GDL, Spices)

Cereal-added

10-1/2 to 12% (8-1/2% as above plus 3-1/2 or 2%)

USDA allows:

3-1/2% of:

Cereal (wheat, rice, potato) flour

Soy flour

Soy concentrate

Non-fat dry milk

2% of Soy protein isolate

Meat ingredients in frankfurters

Skeletal meats — beef, pork, lamb, mutton, goat

By-product or variety meats — tongues, lips, tripe, etc.

Non-meat ingredients in frankfurters

Cereals, soy proteins, milk proteins

Labeling

Traditional generic name (wieners)

Species plus generic (beef franks)

Meat by-products added (frankfurters with variety meats)

Non-meat binders added (wieners with soy added)

Meat by-products and non-meat binders (hot dogs with variety meats and non-fat dry milk added)

Unspecified products (treats)

Smoking, cooking, thermal processing

Purposes:

Coagulates protein matrix

Fixes nitrosomyoglobin

Adds smoke components

Pasteurizes product

Kills trichinella spiralis

Start: House temperature of 140°F —> 180°F, raise 10°F/15 min (include 5 min of smoke). Cold shower (6-8 min).

Frankfurter defects

Fatting out
excess fat, too little SSHCP, overchopping, too much rework

Deformation
too much cereal

Curling
too much connective tissue
Gelling out
too much connective tissue

Crusting
too low relative humidity, excess protein

Greening
excess nitrite, lactobacillus viredescens

Sliming
yeast or pseudomonads on product

Taste, texture, flatus
too much soy protein in product

Barber-poling, speckling
dull blades on chopper

Poor color
too little or too much myoglobin, failure to complete curing cycle

Poor peelability
failure to form outside skin surface, excess connective tissue, understuffing, inadequate relative humidity prior to peeling

Fresh pork sausage

Seasoning (20, 8, 5, 2) per hundred pounds

20 oz salt

8 oz sugar

5 oz sage

2 oz black pepper

 

Sack sausage, bulk sausage, sausage patties, sausage links

Chilled pork —> trimmings or whole carcasses

Pre-rigor pork sausage

Slaughter

Bone

Grind

Mix-blend

Grind

Continuous stuffer

Kartridg-Pak chub packaging machine

 

Saran barrier —> muscle respires, uses trapped, residual oxygen

 

Fermented sausage

Dry < 35% moisture

Semi-dry < 50% moisture

Fermented —> lactic acid

 

Conversion of sugar —> lactic acid (characteristic acid, tangy flavor)

Old method of manufacturing (2 weeks)

Grinding

Season + cure, mixing

Pan-curing (3 days @ 37°F)

Stuffing

Greening (10 days @ 73°F)

Smoking (32 hr @ 100°F)

Drying (10-90 days)

 

 

Micrococcus aurantiacus
Pan-curing = NaNO3 ————————–> NaNO2
Lactic acid bacteria
Greening = Sugar ————————–> Lactic acid

 

New method of manufacturing (2 days):

Grinding

Season + cure, mixing

Add Lactocel®

Stuffing

Greening (16 hr @ 85°F)

Smoking (32 hr @ 100°F)

Drying (10-90 days)

 

Lactocel® starter culture

Micrococcus aurantiacus

Lactobacillus plantarum

Pediococcus cerevisiae

 

Micrococcus aurantiacus ————–> converts NO3 —> NO2

 

Lactobacillus plantarum —————> converts sugar —> lactic acid

Pediococcus cerevisiae


Review of Material — What the student should know:

(1) The different kinds of sausages manufactured.

(2) The purpose of SSHCP.

(3) How sausages are manufactured.


Links to related sites on the Internet

Hormel Foods. Home of hot dogs, Cure 81® hams, and SPAM®.

National Hot Dog and Sausage Council. Fun and interesting facts about hot dogs.

Oscar Mayer Foods. Home of great hot dogs and bologna.

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