(1) To relate the economic loss of parasite infestations in livestock.
(2) To show the impact of mishandling livestock on quality and quantity losses of their carcasses.
(3) To demonstrate antemortem procedures to correct losses that occur in livestock related to the producer or packer.
National Beef Quality Audit
Improvements in quality cannot be made if a benchmark is not available to see where and what the problems are and where the efforts on quality improvements can be made. There have been five such surveys conducted (NBQA-1991, NBQA-1995, NBQA-2000, NBQA-2005, NBQA-2011, and they have had a major impact on our understanding of changes needed in the beef industry.
Top ten quality challenges for the fed-beef industry, NBQA-2000
|1||Low overall uniformity and consistency of cattle, carcasses, and cuts|
|2||Inappropriate carcass size and weight|
|3||Inadequate tenderness of beef|
|5||Reduced Quality Grade/tenderness due to growth promoting implants|
|6||Excess external fat cover|
|7||Inappropriate USDA Quality Grade mix|
|8||Too much hide damage due to brands|
|9||Too frequent and severe bruises|
|10||Too frequent liver condemnations|
NBQA comparisons for USDA grade traits
|USDA Yield Grade||2.9||2.9||3.0||2.8||3.2
|USDA Quality Grade||Select 93||Select 90||Select 85||Select 79||Select 86
|Adjusted fat thickness, in.||0.51||0.51||0.49||0.47||0.59
|Ribeye area, in2||13.8||13.4||13.1||12.8||12.9|
|Kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, %||2.3||2.3||2.3||2.0||2.2
|Carcass weight, pounds||825||794||787||748||759
|Marbling score||Small 40||Small 32||Small 23||Small 06||Small 24
|Maturity||A 59||A 64||A 66||A 60||A 69
Yield grade and quality grade characteristics of steer and heifer carcasses
|USDA Yield Grade||3.0||2.9|
|Adjusted fat thickness, in.||0.48||0.56|
|Carcass weight, pounds||853.9||776.4|
|Kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, %||2.2||2.4|
|Ribeye area, in2||13.8||13.6|
|USDA Quality Grade||Select 90||Select 91|
|Overall Maturity||A 56||A 63|
|Marbling score||Small 36||Small 48|
Improving the quality, consistency, competitiveness and marketshare of fed-beef
|Increase Red Meat Yield||$50.96|
|Enhance Taste and Tenderness||$24.45|
Beef “measles” — cysticercus bovis
Lamb “measles” — cysticercus ovis
Pork “measles” — cysticercus cellulosae
The condition is referred to as cysticercosis
Cost — beef head ($20), beef carcass ($800)
Cause — pasture management, dog or human feces
(2) Roundworm damage in pork livers
Ascarids Ascaris lumbricoides
Cost — pork liver ($2)
Cause — unsanitary housing conditions, fecal contamination
(3) Roundworm damage in sheep intestines
Nodular disease Oesophagostomum columbianum
Cost — sheep intestines for sausage casings ($1)
Cause — failure to “worm” sheep, unclean housing
(4) Grub damage in beef carcasses
Grubs — larvae of the heel fly (ox warble)
Cost — hide damage and carcass trimming ($10)
Cause — failure to “grub” cattle
(5) Liver abscesses in beef
Causative organism Corynebacterium pyogenes & Sperophorus necrophorus
Cost — beef liver ($5)
Cause — failure to prevent persistent rumenitis; prevented by feeding 15-20% roughage and antibiotics
White snail is alternative host in grass. Heaviest infestation is Texas Gulf Coast (inland 50 miles)
Cause — failure to drench cattle
(7) Hide damage due to branding, mud/urine/insects
Hides are scarred due to hot-iron branding, mud and urine, and biting/sucking insects. Decreases quality of hides for luxury items such as automobile interiors and fine furniture.
Solution: Move brands to “butt” region; provide for cleaner pens; treat with insecticides.
(8) Injection-site lesions
Caused by giving injections into top butt region of animal.
Incidence rate was 22% in mid- to late-1980’s; now about 10%.
Solution: Massive educational program led by National Cattlemen’s Beef Association to inform producers about consequences of top butt injections. Now use “tent” method for administering vaccinations.
|Most common||35% hip||40% leg||48% ham|
|Second most common||19% shoulder||35% back||26% back|
|Leading cause||Crowding||Lifting by wool||Kicking|
|Second leading cause||Hitting with wooden objects||Hitting with wooden objects||Hitting with wooden objects|
(10) Calloused muscle
Muscle is injured, which causes it to atrophy. Condition called muscle steatosis, which occurs in fat infiltrating the area and caused calloused muscle.
(1) Heat prostration in swine
Cause: Swine have very inefficient processes for body heat transfer
Solution: Sprinklers in holding pens
(2) Suffocation in sheep
Cause: Sheep are easily frightened, very gregarious, will pile up and smother
Solution: Don’t pen in small places
(3) Fiery fat, splotched muscle in beef
Cause: Short-term violent excitement ruptures capillaries in fat and muscle
Solution: Hold 1-2 days prior to slaughter
Review of Material — What the student should know:
(1) An understanding of what parasites or other conditions can do to the value of livestock.
(2) That mishandling by man can cause significant losses in livestock and their meat.
(3) That simple animal husbandry practices can help prevent many product and economic losses.
Links to related sites